Musotsi, P.Y., Otieno, C.A. & Njoroge, S.M., 2017. Prevalence of Fasciolosis in Cattle, Sheep, and Goats Slaughtered in Slaughter Slabs in Trans-Nzoia West, Kenya. and Knowledge of Livestock Handlers. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 7(6), p.34-43. Abstract

Background: Fasciolosis is known globally to be an important helminthic disease of ruminants caused by liver
fluke species of the genus Fasciola, and it is one of the most neglected tropical zoonotic diseases that can lead to
human infection. It has the widest geographic spread of any emerging zoonotic disease, and it occurs in many
countries of the world. Objectives: The study aimed at determining the prevalence of fasciolosis in ruminants
slaughtered in Trans-Nzoia West. Specific objectives were to establish the trend of fasciolosis in ruminants,
ascertain the relationship between fasciolosis prevalence and rainfall patterns and assess the knowledge of meat
sellers and farmers about fasciolosis. Methodology: A 5-year secondary data retrospective study was carried out
in Trans-Nzoia West, Trans-Nzoia County. The study population consisted of ruminants slaughtered, meat
sellers and livestock farmers.Results: A total of 104,221 cattle, sheep and goats were slaughtered in the five-year
period in which 6,098 (5.85%) were infested with fasciolosis with a prevalence of 6.52%, 6.08% and 4.1 0% in
cattle, sheep, and goats respectively. Most meat sellers (72.2%) were able to identify fasciolosis in infested livers,
88.9% reported liver flukes infestation resulted in the loss of income while 58.3% were not aware of nutrition
depletion associated with fasciolosis. Of the farmers interviewed, 52.9% grazed in swampy areas, 66.7%
dewormed after 3 months, 78.4% had heard about fasciolosis and 80.0% did not know the cause of fasciolosis.
The majority (95.0%) were not aware of the snail species spreading liver flukes while 77.5% did not know that
fasciolosis was a zoonotic disease.Conclusion: Fasciolosis was prevalent in the area and caused great economic
loss to the meat sellers. Most farmers were not aware of its cause and zoonotic nature. Recommendations:
Fasciolosis control should be approached from a multidisciplinary angle and farmers should be educated on it
and its zoonotic nature.

Njoroge, S.M., Munyao, T.M. & Osano, O., 2016. Modeling relationship between organic carbon partition coefficient and pesticides solubility of pesticides used along the shore of lake Naivasha, Kenya. American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 6(2), p.33–37. Abstract

Pesticides have many different properties that affect their behaviour in the environment. Pesticide’s solubility
in water has a great impact on leaching potential and environmental fate. The objective of this study was to determine the
relationship between organic carbon based partition coefficient (koc) and pesticides solubility (S) of pesticides used along the
shore of Lake Naivasha using regression analysis. The properties (S, and soil/water equilibrium partition coefficient (kd)) of
pesticides selected from an inventory of pesticides used in farms around Lake Naivasha, were determined from the
manufacturers’ materials safety data sheets. The organic carbon (foc) of the soil from the study area was then determined using
the loss-on-ignition (LOI) method and used to calculate koc. The results showed that the soils around Lake Naivasha had a
mean organic carbon (foc) content of 1.770% and a regression equation for koc and S for the area to be log koc = -0.368logS +
3.256. It was concluded that this relationship can be used to estimate the organic carbon based partition coefficient (koc) of a
pesticide where S is available, and the results compared with values determined experimentally and from other models.

Mamboleo, D.M., et al., 2016. The Prevalence of Diarrheal Diseases in Childcare Institutions, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. International Journal of Research in Environmental Science (IJRES), 2(6), p.5-11. Website Abstract

Diarrheal disease is one of the leading middle income countries. This study examined diarrheal
diseases among children in Uasin Gishu County’s childcare institutions per age, sex, duration of a child in a
childcare institution, and use of soap in hand washing after visiting the toilet. The study involved 202 children
between ages 6 to 20 years old. There were65.8% boy child and 34.2 girls, 71.3% of these children were
between 6-15 years old. The study found 64.4% children used soap to wash hands after toilet. Use of soap in
hand washing increased with increase in children’s age, with a girl using soap more in hand washing at the rate
of84.1% compared to a boy child. The study learned that 90.1% children had suffered from diarrheal diseases
within 28 days where61.4% boys had suffered from diarrhea. Chi-square analysis showed a significant
relationship between diarrheal diseases and children’s age (P<0.001) while there was a significant relationship
between diarrhea andgender (P<0.001). It was concluded that the prevalence of diarrheal diseases in Uasin
Gishu County child care institutions was 90.1% and that boys were affected more than the girls. Health
education on use of soap in hand-washing after toilet should be intensified as a means of decreasing diarrheal


Increasing use of pesticides threatens the quality of groundwater with contamination. The objective of the study
was to assess the use of integrated pest management (IPM) in reducing the risks of groundwater contamination
in Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data on types and
quantities of pesticides used; and other methods used to control weeds, pests and plant diseases. The results
showed that 141 pesticides were used in the basin and that 75% of farms were applying pesticides in high
quantities. All the farms were also using IPM where pesticides and other conservative means were applied.
Majority of farms (62.5%) reported average harvest when IPM methods were used. It was concluded that IPM
program around Lake Naivasha is still in its initial stages and in transition from intensive pesticide use. The
risk of groundwater contamination in the lake basin is therefore still high.

Njoroge, S.M., Osano, O. & Munyao, T.M., 2015. Modelling Relationship between Soil Permeability and Organic Carbon in Pesticide Transport into Groundwater. International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 37(2), p.1423-1427. Abstract

Groundwater contamination by pesticides is an
environmental health concern throughout the world. Many
pesticides do not leach because they are adsorbed on the
soil particles or organic matter even though they may have
a relatively high solubility. The objective of this study was
to determine the relationship between soil permeability
and organic carbon in the transport of pesticides into
groundwater along the shore of Lake Naivasha, using
regression analysis of soil permeability and organic carbon
data collected along the shore. The results showed that the
soil organic carbon (foc) positively affected the soil
permeability (k) and were related by the equation k=
80.724(1.726)foc. It was concluded that organic carbon
increased soil permeability by 30%, thereby recharging the
aquifer while at the same time reducing pesticide transport
into groundwater. Based on these findings the study
recommended that the use of compost (organic
amendments) should be increased in place of inorganic

Gichuho, C.M., Njoroge, S.M. & Wambui, W.F., 2013. Land Cover Change and Deforestation in Gazetted Maji Mazuri Forest, Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research, 2(4), p.563–566. Abstract

Loss of forest cover and forest degradation are of global and national concern. Among other things, such changes can lead
to reduction in stream discharges, increased erosion and loss of biodiversity, which may alter the functioning and values of affected
ecosystems. This study used three Landsat images acquired in 1975, 1986 and 2005, to determine land cover changes and likely
environmental impacts in Maji Mazuri forest in Kenya. The results of the analysis showed that between 1975 and 2005, natural forest
decreased by about 42.31%. The likely environmental impacts include loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, and changes in forest hydrology.
All stakeholders should be involved in policy formulation and implementation for better management of this important ecological

Njoroge, S.M., et al., 2013. Pesticide Preferences and Pattern of Use along the Shore of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Public Safety, 2(3), p.115-120. Pesticide Preferences and Pattern of Use along the Shore of Lake Naivasha, Kenya Abstract

Improper pesticide application has resulted in high toxicity levels causing environmental risk. The objective of the study was to determine pesticide preferences and pattern of use in farms along the shore of Lake Naivasha. Interviewer administered questionnaires and researcher observation were used to collect data on pesticides being used and pattern of use in 20 major horticultural farms around Lake Naivasha. Secondary data from journals, standards and materials safety data sheets from manufacturers were also used to determine pesticide properties such as toxicity. The results showed there were 4.3% (6) WHO class I and 14.3% (20) class II pesticides of the 141 pesticides used along the shore of Lake Naivasha. The pattern of pesticide use in the area was moderate to high and all the farms were also using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to control pests. It was concluded that some pesticides in WHO class I that were being used along the shore of Lake Naivasha (e.g. oxamyl, methomyl and fenamiphos) are very toxic to human beings and aquatic organisms since they cause cholinesterase inhibition poisoning by inactivating the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.

Keywords: Pesticides, Environmental pollution, integrated pest management, Lake Naivasha.