Takahashi R, Wilunda C, Magutah K, Mwaura-Tenambergen W, Atwoli L, Perngparn U. {Evaluation of alcohol screening and community-based brief interventions in rural western Kenya: A quasi-experimental study}. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2018;53.Abstract
© The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Aims: To assess the effectiveness of community-based alcohol brief interventions (ABI) implemented by community-health workers with and without motivational talks (MT) by former drinkers, in reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption.Methods: We conducted a three-arm quasi-experimental study (one control and two intervention groups) between May and December 2015 in Kakamega County, Kenya. Participants were hazardous or harmful alcohol drinkers with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score of 8-19 at baseline. One intervention group received only ABI while the other received ABI + MT. The interventions' effects on AUDIT scores were analysed using linear mixed models. Logistic regression was used to analyse the interventions' effects on low-risk drinking (AUDIT score {\textless} 8) after 6 months.Results: The study included 161 participants: 52 in the control group, 52 in the only ABI group and 57 in the ABI + MT group. The mean AUDIT scores were lower in the intervention groups at 1, 3 and 6 months post-intervention; the ABI + MT group showed a greater reduction. The mean AUDIT scores over a 6-month period were lower in both intervention groups compared with the control group. The odds of low-risk drinking were almost two times higher in both intervention groups than in the control group, although the effect of only ABI on low-risk drinking was not significant.Conclusions: ABI + MT and only ABI were associated with a reduced mean AUDIT score among hazardous and high-risk drinkers in this resource-limited setting. ABI + MT was also associated with low-risk drinking in this population.Short summary: Community-based alcohol brief interventions implemented by community-health workers accompanied by motivational talks by former drinkers were associated with reduced hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in a rural setting in western Kenya.
Fayyad J, Sampson NA, Hwang I, Adamowski T, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Al-Hamzawi A, Andrade LHSG, Borges G, de Girolamo G, Florescu S. {The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys}. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders. 2017;9.Abstract
© 2016, Springer-Verlag Wien. We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5{%} mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8{%} across surveys and was higher in high (3.6{%})- and upper-middle (3.0{%})- than low-/lower-middle (1.4{%})-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0{%} among childhood cases and 41.1{%} among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.
Degenhardt L, Glantz M, Evans-Lacko S, Sadikova E, Sampson N, Thornicroft G, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Al-Hamzawi A, Alonso J, {Helena Andrade} L. {Estimating treatment coverage for people with substance use disorders: an analysis of data from the World Mental Health Surveys}. World Psychiatry. 2017;16.Abstract
© 2017 World Psychiatric Association Substance use is a major cause of disability globally. This has been recognized in the recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in which treatment coverage for substance use disorders is identified as one of the indicators. There have been no estimates of this treatment coverage cross-nationally, making it difficult to know what is the baseline for that SDG target. Here we report data from the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), based on representative community household surveys in 26 countries. We assessed the 12-month prevalence of substance use disorders (alcohol or drug abuse/dependence); the proportion of people with these disorders who were aware that they needed treatment and who wished to receive care; the proportion of those seeking care who received it; and the proportion of such treatment that met minimal standards for treatment quality (“minimally adequate treatment”). Among the 70,880 participants, 2.6{%} met 12-month criteria for substance use disorders; the prevalence was higher in upper-middle income (3.3{%}) than in high-income (2.6{%}) and low/lower-middle income (2.0{%}) countries. Overall, 39.1{%} of those with 12-month substance use disorders recognized a treatment need; this recognition was more common in high-income (43.1{%}) than in upper-middle (35.6{%}) and low/lower-middle income (31.5{%}) countries. Among those who recognized treatment need, 61.3{%} made at least one visit to a service provider, and 29.5{%} of the latter received minimally adequate treatment exposure (35.3{%} in high, 20.3{%} in upper-middle, and 8.6{%} in low/lower-middle income countries). Overall, only 7.1{%} of those with past-year substance use disorders received minimally adequate treatment: 10.3{%} in high income, 4.3{%} in upper-middle income and 1.0{%} in low/lower-middle income countries. These data suggest that only a small minority of people with substance use disorders receive even minimally adequate treatment. At least three barriers are involved: awareness/perceived treatment need, accessing treatment once a need is recognized, and compliance (on the part of both provider and client) to obtain adequate treatment. Various factors are likely to be involved in each of these three barriers, all of which need to be addressed to improve treatment coverage of substance use disorders. These data provide a baseline for the global monitoring of progress of treatment coverage for these disorders as an indicator within the SDGs.
Koenen KC, Ratanatharathorn A, Ng L, McLaughlin KA, Bromet EJ, Stein DJ, Karam EG, {Meron Ruscio} A, Benjet C, Scott K. {Posttraumatic stress disorder in the World Mental Health Surveys}. Psychological Medicine. 2017;47.Abstract
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017. Background Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking. Methods Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics. Results The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9{%} in the total sample and 5.6{%} among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5{%}) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8{%}) and upper-middle income (28.7{%}) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed. Conclusions PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.
Kwobah E, Epstein S, Mwangi A, Litzelman D, Atwoli L. {PREVALENCE of psychiatric morbidity in a community sample in Western Kenya}. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17.Abstract
© 2017 The Author(s). Background: About 25{%} of the worldwide population suffers from mental, neurological and substance use disorders but unfortunately, up to 75{%} of affected persons do not have access to the treatment they need. Data on the magnitude of the mental health problem in Kenya is scarce. The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence and the socio-demographic factors associated with mental and substance use disorders in Kosirai division, Nandi County, Western Kenya. Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study in which participants were selected by simple random sampling. The sampling frame was obtained from a data base of the population in the study area developed during door-to-door testing and counseling exercises for HIV/AIDS. Four hundred and twenty consenting adults were interviewed by psychologists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Version 7 for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition and a researcher-designed social demographic questionnaire. Results: One hundred and ninety one (45{%}) of the participants had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one of the mental disorders. Of these, 66 (15.7{%}) had anxiety disorder, 53 (12.3{%}) had major depressive disorder; 49 (11.7{%}) had alcohol and substance use disorder. 32 (7.6{%}) had experienced a psychotic episode and 69 (16.4{%}) had a life-time suicidal attempt. Only 7 (1.7{%}) had ever been diagnosed with a mental illness. Having a mental condition was associated with age less than 60 years and having a medical condition. Conclusion: A large proportion of the community has had a mental disorder in their lifetime and most of these conditions are undiagnosed and therefore not treated. These findings indicate a need for strategies that will promote diagnosis and treatment of community members with psychiatric disorders. In order to screen more people for mental illness, we recommend further research to evaluate a strategy similar to the home based counseling and testing for HIV and the use of simple screening tools.
Embleton L, Nyandat J, Ayuku D, Sang E, Kamanda A, Ayaya S, Nyandiko W, Gisore P, Vreeman R, Atwoli L. {Sexual Behavior Among Orphaned Adolescents in Western Kenya: A Comparison of Institutional- and Family-Based Care Settings}. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2017;60.Abstract
© 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Purpose This study sought to assess whether risky sexual behaviors and sexual exploitation of orphaned adolescents differed between family-based and institutional care environments in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a cohort of orphaned adolescents aged 10–18 years living in 300 randomly selected households and 19 charitable children's institutions. The primary outcomes were having ever had consensual sex, number of sex partners, transactional sex, and forced sex. Multivariate logistic regression compared these between participants in institutional care and family-based care while adjusting for age, sex, orphan status, importanc e of religion, caregiver support and supervision, school attendance, and alcohol and drug use. Results This analysis included 1,365 participants aged ≥10 years: 712 (52{%}) living in institutional environments and 653 (48{%}) in family-based care. Participants in institutional care were significantly less likely to report engaging in transactional sex (adjusted odds ratio,.46; 95{%} confidence interval,.3–.72) or to have experienced forced sex (adjusted odds ratio,.57; 95{%} confidence interval,.38–.88) when controlling for age, sex, and orphan status. These associations remained when adjusting for additional variables. Conclusions Orphaned adolescents living in family-based care in Uasin Gishu, Kenya, may be at increased risk of transactional sex and sexual violence compared to those in institutional care. Institutional care may reduce vulnerabilities through the provision of basic material needs and adequate standards of living that influence adolescents' sexual risk-taking behaviors. The use of single items to assess outcomes and nonexplicit definition of sex suggest the findings should be interpreted with caution.
Shangani S, Operario D, Genberg B, Kirwa K, Midoun M, Atwoli L, Ayuku D, Galárraga O, Braitstein P. {Unconditional government cash transfers in support of orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in western Kenya: Is there an association with psychological wellbeing?}. PLoS ONE. 2017;12.Abstract
© 2017 Shangani et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background Orphaned and vulnerable adolescents (OVA) in sub-Saharan Africa are at greater risk for adverse psychological outcomes compared with their non-OVA counterparts. Social interventions that provide cash transfers (CTs) have been shown to improve health outcomes among young people, but little is known about their impact on the psychological wellbeing of OVA. Objective Among OVA in western Kenya, we assessed the association between living in a household that received monthly unconditional government CTs and psychological wellbeing. Methods We examined the likelihood of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and positive future outlook among 655 OVA aged between 10 and 18 years who lived in 300 randomly selected households in western Kenya that either received or did not receive unconditional monthly CTs. Results The mean age was 14.0 (SD 2.4) years and 329 (50.2{%}) of the participants were female while 190 (29.0{%}) were double orphans whose biological parents were both deceased. After adjusting for socio-demographic, caregiver, and household characteristics and accounting for potential effects of participant clustering by sub-location of residence, OVA living in CT households were more likely to have a positive future outlook (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95{%} confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.99), less likely to be anxious (OR 0.57, 95{%} CI 0.42, 0.78), and less likely to have symptoms of post-traumatic stress (OR 0.50, 95{%} CI 0.29, 0.89). We did not find statistically significant differences in odds of depression by CT group. Conclusion OVA in CT households reported better psychological wellbeing compared to those in households not receiving CTs. CT interventions may be effective for improving psychological wellbeing among vulnerable adolescents in socioeconomically deprived households.
Atwoli L, Platt JM, Basu A, Williams DR, Stein DJ, Koenen KC. {Associations between lifetime potentially traumatic events and chronic physical conditions in the South African Stress and Health Survey: A cross-sectional study}. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16.Abstract
© 2016 The Author(s).Background: This study examined the association between the type, and cumulative number of lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs), and chronic physical conditions, in a South African sample. PTE exposures have been associated with an increased risk for a wide range of chronic physical conditions, but it is unclear whether psychiatric disorders mediate this association. Given the established differences in trauma occurrence, and the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in South Africa relative to other countries, examining associations between PTEs and chronic physical conditions, particularly while accounting for psychiatric comorbidity is important. Methods: Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health Study, a cross-sectional population-representative study of psychological and physical health of South African adults. Twenty-seven PTEs, based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0, DSM-IV PTSD module were grouped into seven PTE types (war events, physical violence, sexual violence, accidents, unexpected death of a loved one, network events, and witnessing PTEs). Five clusters of physical conditions (cardiovascular, arthritis, respiratory, chronic pain, and other health conditions) were examined. Logistic regressions assessed the odds of reporting a physical condition in relation to type and cumulative number of PTEs. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to examine dose-response effect of cumulative PTEs on physical conditions. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychiatric disorders, respondents with any PTE had increased odds of all assessed physical conditions, ranging between 1.48 (95 {%} CI: 1.06-2.07) for arthritis and 2.07 (95 {%} CI: 1.57-2.73) for respiratory conditions, compared to those without PTE exposure. Sexual violence, physical violence, unexpected death of a loved one, and network PTEs significantly increased the odds of all or nearly all the physical conditions assessed. There was a dose-response relationship between number of PTEs and increased odds of all physical conditions. Conclusions: Results from this study, the first in an African general population, are consistent with other population-based studies; PTEs confer a broad-spectrum risk for chronic physical conditions, independent of psychiatric disorders. These risks increase with each cumulative PTE exposure. Clinically, comprehensive evaluations for risk of mental and physical health morbidities should be considered among PTE survivors.
Rich JD, Beckwith CG, Macmadu A, Marshall BDL, Brinkley-Rubinstein L, Amon JJ, Milloy M-J, King MRF, Sanchez J, Atwoli L. {Clinical care of incarcerated people with HIV, viral hepatitis, or tuberculosis}. The Lancet. 2016;388.Abstract
© 2016 Elsevier LtdThe burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections. Methods such as screening practices and provision of treatment during detainment periods are reviewed to identify the effect of community-based treatment when returning inmates into the general population. Where data are available, we describe differences in the provision of medical care in the prison and jail settings of low-income and middle-income countries compared with high-income countries. Structural barriers impede the optimal delivery of clinical care for prisoners, and substance use, mental illness, and infectious disease further complicate the delivery of care. For prison health care to reach the standards of community-based health care, political will and financial investment are required from governmental, medical, and humanitarian organisations worldwide. In this review, we highlight challenges, gaps in knowledge, and priorities for future research to improve health-care in institutions for prisoners.
Stein DJ, Karam EG, Shahly V, Hill ED, King A, Petukhova M, Atwoli L, Bromet EJ, Florescu S, Haro JM. {Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with life-threatening motor vehicle collisions in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys}. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16.Abstract
© 2016 The Author(s).Background: Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a substantial contributor to the global burden of disease and lead to subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the relevant literature originates in only a few countries, and much remains unknown about MVC-related PTSD prevalence and predictors. Methods: Data come from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative, a coordinated series of community epidemiological surveys of mental disorders throughout the world. The subset of 13 surveys (5 in high income countries, 8 in middle or low income countries) with respondents reporting PTSD after life-threatening MVCs are considered here. Six classes of predictors were assessed: socio-demographics, characteristics of the MVC, childhood family adversities, MVCs, other traumatic experiences, and respondent history of prior mental disorders. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of PTSD. Mental disorders were assessed with the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview using DSM-IV criteria. Results: Prevalence of PTSD associated with MVCs perceived to be life-threatening was 2.5 {%} overall and did not vary significantly across countries. PTSD was significantly associated with low respondent education, someone dying in the MVC, the respondent or someone else being seriously injured, childhood family adversities, prior MVCs (but not other traumatic experiences), and number of prior anxiety disorders. The final model was significantly predictive of PTSD, with 32 {%} of all PTSD occurring among the 5 {%} of respondents classified by the model as having highest PTSD risk. Conclusion: Although PTSD is a relatively rare outcome of life-threatening MVCs, a substantial minority of PTSD cases occur among the relatively small proportion of people with highest predicted risk. This raises the question whether MVC-related PTSD could be reduced with preventive interventions targeted to high-risk survivors using models based on predictors assessed in the immediate aftermath of the MVCs.
Bromet EJ, Atwoli L, Kawakami N, Navarro-Mateu F, Piotrowski P, King AJ, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Bunting B, Demyttenaere K. {Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with natural and human-made disasters in the World Mental Health Surveys}. Psychological Medicine. 2016.Abstract
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016Background: Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20–40{%} range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3–5{%}) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies. Method: Although disaster-related PTSD was evaluated in 18 WMH surveys, only six in high-income countries had enough respondents for a risk factor analysis. Predictors considered were socio-demographics, disaster characteristics, and pre-disaster vulnerability factors (childhood family adversities, prior traumatic experiences, and prior mental disorders). Results: Disaster-related PTSD prevalence was 0.0–3.8{%} among adult (ages 18+) WMH respondents and was significantly related to high education, serious injury or death of someone close, forced displacement from home, and pre-existing vulnerabilities (prior childhood family adversities, other traumas, and mental disorders). Of PTSD cases 44.5{%} were among the 5{%} of respondents classified by the model as having highest PTSD risk. Conclusion: Disaster-related PTSD is uncommon in high-income WMH countries. Risk factors are consistent with prior research: severity of exposure, history of prior stress exposure, and pre-existing mental disorders. The high concentration of PTSD among respondents with high predicted risk in our model supports the focus of screening assessments that identify disaster survivors most in need of preventive interventions.
Atwoli L, Stein DJ, King A, Petukhova M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Bromet EJ, {De Girolamo} G, Demyttenaere K, Florescu S. {Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with unexpected death of a loved one: Cross-national findings from the world mental health surveys Jose Posada-Villa 24 Margreet ten Have}. Depress Anxiety. 2016;00:1–12.Abstract
Background: Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey ini-tiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. Methods: Data from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1{%} weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression. Simulation was used to estimate overall model strength in targeting individuals at highest PTSD risk. Results: PTSD prevalence after UD averaged 5.2{%} across surveys and did not differ signifi-cantly between high-income and low-middle income countries. Significant multivariate predictors included the deceased being a spouse or child, the respondent being female and believing they could have done something to prevent the death, prior trauma exposure, and history of prior men-tal disorders. The final model was strongly predictive of PTSD, with the 5{%} of respondents having highest estimated risk including 30.6{%} of all cases of PTSD. Positive predictive value (i.e., the pro-portion of high-risk individuals who actually developed PTSD) among the 5{%} of respondents with highest predicted risk was 25.3{%}. Conclusions: The high prevalence and meaningful risk of PTSD make UD a major public health issue. This study provides novel insights into predictors of PTSD after this experience and sug-gests that screening assessments might be useful in identifying high-risk individuals for preventive interventions.
Olaya B, Alonso J, Atwoli L, Kessler RC, Vilagut G, Haro JM. {Association between traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: Results from the ESEMeD-Spain study}. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. 2015;24.Abstract
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.Background. The relative importance of traumatic events (TEs) in accounting for the social burden of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could vary according to cross-cultural factors. In that sense, no such studies have yet been conducted in the Spanish general population. The present study aims to determine the epidemiology of trauma and PTSD in a Spanish community sample using the randomly selected TEs method. Methods. The European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD)-Spain is a cross-sectional household survey of a representative sample of adult population. Lifetime prevalence of self-reported TEs and lifetime and 12-month prevalence of PTSD were evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Reports of PTSD associated with randomly selected TEs were weighted by the individual-level probabilities of TE selection to generate estimates of population-level PTSD risk associated with each TE. Results. Road accident was the most commonly self-reported TE (14.1{%}). Sexual assault had the highest conditional risk of PTSD (16.5{%}). The TEs that contributed most to societal PTSD burden were unexpected death of a loved one (36.4{%} of all cases) and sexual assault (17.2{%}). Being female and having a low educational level were associated with low risk of overall TE exposure and being previously married was related to higher risk. Being female was related to high risk of PTSD after experiencing a TE. Conclusions. Having an accident is commonly reported among Spanish adults, but two TE are responsible for the highest burden associated with PTSD: the unexpected death of someone close and sexual assault. These results can help designing public health interventions to reduce the societal PTSD burden.
Atwoli L, Platt J, Williams DR, Stein DJ, Koenen KC. {Association between witnessing traumatic events and psychopathology in the South African Stress and Health Study}. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2015;50.Abstract
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Background: The high burden of witnessing traumatic events has been demonstrated in previous research in South Africa. However, previous work has focused on PTSD rather than a broader range of psychopathological outcomes. This study examined the association between witnessing trauma and multiple outcomes including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Methods: Regression models measured the odds of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders among those who reported witnessing in the South African Stress and Health Study. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine whether witnessing was associated with earlier onset of mental disorders. Results: Witnessing trauma was more commonly reported among males and those with low-average education. Posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, and anxiety disorders varied significantly with witnessing status, and witnessing was associated with exposure to a higher number of traumatic events compared to other types of traumatic events. Respondents reporting witnessing trauma had elevated odds of mood and anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Conclusion: Witnessing trauma is common in the South African population and results in increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. Interventions aimed at reducing the burden of trauma and its outcomes must now increase their focus on bystanders and other observers, rather than just focusing on those directly affected.
Were MC, Siika A, Ayuo PO, Atwoli L, Esamai F. {Building Comprehensive and Sustainable Health Informatics Institutions in Developing Countries: Moi University Experience}.; 2015.Abstract
© 2015 IMIA and IOS Press.Current approaches for capacity building in Health Informatics (HI) in developing countries mostly focus on training, and often rely on support from foreign entities. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive and multidimensional capacity-building framework by Lansang {&} Dennis, and its application for HI capacity building as implemented in a higher-education institution in Kenya. This framework incorporates training, learning-by-doing, partnerships, and centers of excellence. At Moi University (Kenya), the training dimensions include an accredited Masters in HI Program, PhD in HI, and HI short courses. Learning-by-doing occurs through work within MOH facilities at the AMPATH care and treatment program serving 3 million people. Moi University has formed strategic HI partnerships with Regenstrief Institute, Inc. (USA), University of Bergen (Norway), and Makerere University (Uganda), among others. The University has also created an Institute of Biomedical Informatics to serve as an HI Center of Excellence in the region. This Institute has divisions in Training, Research, Service and Administration. The HI capacity-building approach by Moi provides a model for adoption by other institutions in resource-limited settings.
Atwoli L, Stein DJ, Koenen KC, McLaughlin KA. {Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: Prevalence, correlates and consequences}. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2015;28.Abstract
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.Purpose of review This review discusses recent findings from epidemiological surveys of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) globally, including their prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in the community. Recent findings A number of studies on the epidemiology of PTSD have recently been published from diverse countries, with new methodological innovations introduced. Such work has not only documented the prevalence of PTSD in different settings, but has also shed new light on the PTSD conditional risk associated with specific traumatic events, and on the morbidity and comorbidities associated with these events. Summary Recent community studies show that trauma exposure is higher in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries. PTSD prevalence rates are largely similar across countries, however, with the highest rates being found in postconflict settings. Trauma and PTSD-risk factors are distributed differently in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries, with sociodemographic factors contributing more to this risk in high-income than low-income countries. Apart from PTSD, trauma exposure is also associated with several chronic physical conditions. These findings indicate a high burden of trauma exposure in low-income countries and postconflict settings, where access to trained mental health professionals is typically low.
Benjet C, Bromet E, Karam EG, Kessler RC, McLaughlin KA, Ruscio AM, Shahly V, Stein DJ, Petukhova M, Hill E. {The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium}. Psychological Medicine. 2015.Abstract
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015Background: Considerable research has documented that exposure to traumatic events has negative effects on physical and mental health. Much less research has examined the predictors of traumatic event exposure. Increased understanding of risk factors for exposure to traumatic events could be of considerable value in targeting preventive interventions and anticipating service needs. Method: General population surveys in 24 countries with a combined sample of 68 894 adult respondents across six continents assessed exposure to 29 traumatic event types. Differences in prevalence were examined with cross-tabulations. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether traumatic event types clustered into interpretable factors. Survival analysis was carried out to examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics and prior traumatic events with subsequent exposure. Results: Over 70{%} of respondents reported a traumatic event; 30.5{%} were exposed to four or more. Five types – witnessing death or serious injury, the unexpected death of a loved one, being mugged, being in a life-threatening automobile accident, and experiencing a life-threatening illness or injury – accounted for over half of all exposures. Exposure varied by country, sociodemographics and history of prior traumatic events. Being married was the most consistent protective factor. Exposure to interpersonal violence had the strongest associations with subsequent traumatic events. Conclusions: Given the near ubiquity of exposure, limited resources may best be dedicated to those that are more likely to be further exposed such as victims of interpersonal violence. Identifying mechanisms that account for the associations of prior interpersonal violence with subsequent trauma is critical to develop interventions to prevent revictimization.
Shirey K, Manyara SM, Atwoli L, Tomlin R, Gakinya B, Cheng S, Kamano J, Laktabai J, Pastakia S. {Symptoms of depression among patients attending a diabetes care clinic in rural western Kenya}. Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology. 2015;2.Abstract
© 2015 The Authors.Abstract Objective The prevalence of diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa is rising, but its relationship to depression is not well-characterized. This report describes depressive symptom prevalence and associations with adherence and outcomes among patients with diabetes in a rural, resource-constrained setting. Methods In the Webuye, Kenya diabetes clinic, we conducted a chart review, analyzing data including medication adherence, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), clinic attendance, and PHQ-2 depression screening results. Results Among 253 patients, 20.9{%} screened positive for depression. Prevalence in females was higher than in males; 27{%} vs 15{%} (p = 0.023). Glycemic control trends were better in those screening negative; at 24 months post-enrollment mean HbA1c was 7.5 for those screening negative and 9.5 for those screening positive (p = 0.0025). There was a nonsignificant (p = 0.269) trend toward loss to follow-up among those screening positive. Conclusions These findings suggest that depression is common among people with diabetes in rural western Kenya, which may profoundly impact diabetes control and treatment adherence.
Atwoli L, Nock MK, Williams DR, Stein DJ. {Association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among adult offspring: Results from the cross-sectional South African Stress and Health survey}. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14.Abstract
Background: Prior studies have demonstrated a link between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidal behavior. However, it remains unclear what aspects of suicidal behavior among adult offspring are predicted by specific parental mental disorders, especially in Africa. This study set out to investigate the association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in a South African general population sample.Method: Parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior in offspring were assessed using structured interviews among 4,315 respondents from across South Africa. The WHO CIDI was used to collect data on suicidal behavior, while the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria Interview was used to assess prior parental psychopathology. Bivariate and multivariate survival models tested the associations between the type and number parental mental disorders (including suicide) and lifetime suicidal behavior in the offspring. Associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts) among adult offspring were tested.Results: The presence of parental psychopathology significantly increased the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring. More specifically, parental panic disorder was associated with offspring suicidal ideation, while parental panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and suicide were significantly associated with offspring suicide attempts. Among those with suicidal ideation, none of the tested forms of parental psychopathology was associated with having suicide plans or attempts. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of parental disorders and odds of suicidal ideation.Conclusions: Parental psychopathology increases the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in the South African context, replicating results found in other regions. Specific parental disorders predicted the onset and persistence of suicidal ideation or attempts in their offspring. Further research into these associations is recommended in order to determine the mechanisms through which parent psychopathology increases the odds of suicidal behavior among offspring. © 2014 Atwoli et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Stein DJ, McLaughlin KA, Koenen KC, Atwoli L, Friedman MJ, Hill ED, Maercker A, Petukhova M, Shahly V, {Van Ommeren} M. {DSM-5 and ICD-11 definitions of posttraumatic stress disorder: Investigating "narrow" and "broad" approaches}. Depression and Anxiety. 2014;31.Abstract
Background: The development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) and ICD-11 has led to reconsideration of diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys allow investigation of the implications of the changing criteria compared to DSM-IV and ICD-10. Methods: WMH Surveys in 13 countries asked respondents to enumerate all their lifetime traumatic events (TEs) and randomly selected one TE per respondent for PTSD assessment. DSMIV and ICD-10 PTSD were assessed for the 23,936 respondents who reported lifetime TEs in these surveys with the fully structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). DSM-5 and proposed ICD-11 criteria were approximated. Associations of the different criteria sets with indicators of clinical severity (distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbid fear-distress disorders, PTSD symptom duration) were examined to investigate the implications of using the different systems. Results: A total of 5.6{%} of respondents met criteria for "broadly defined" PTSD (i.e., full criteria in at least one diagnostic system), with prevalence ranging from 3.0{%} with DSM-5 to 4.4{%} with ICD-10. Only one-third of broadly defined cases met criteria in all four systems and another one third in only one system (narrowly defined cases). Between-system differences in indicators of clinical severity suggest that ICD-10 criteria are least strict and DSM-IV criteria most strict. The more striking result, though, is that significantly elevated indicators of clinical significance were found even for narrowly defined cases for each of the four diagnostic systems. Conclusions: These results argue for a broad definition of PTSD defined by any one of the different systems to capture all clinically significant cases of PTSD in future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ayuku D, Embleton L, Koech J, Atwoli L, Hu L, Ayaya S, Hogan J, Nyandiko W, Vreeman R, Kamanda A. {The government of Kenya cash transfer for orphaned and vulnerable children: Cross-sectional comparison of household and individual characteristics of those with and without}. BMC International Health and Human Rights. 2014;14.Abstract
© 2014 Ayuku et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Background: The 'Cash Transfer to Orphans and Vulnerable Children' (CT-OVC) in Kenya is a government-supported program intended to provide regular and predictable cash transfers (CT) to poor households taking care of OVC. CT programs can be an effective means of alleviating poverty and facilitating the attainment of an adequate standard of living for people's health and well-being and other international human rights. The objective of this analysis was to compare the household socioeconomic status, school enrolment, nutritional status, and future outlook of orphaned and separated children receiving the CT compared to those not receiving a CT.Methods. This project analyzes baseline data from a cohort of orphaned and separated children aged {\textless}19 years and non-orphaned children living in 300 randomly selected households (HH) in 8 Locations of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Baseline data were analyzed using multivariable logistic and Poisson regression comparing children in CT-HH vs. non-CT HH. Odds ratios are adjusted (AOR) with 95{%} confidence intervals (CI) for guardian age and sex, child age and sex, and intra-HH correlation.Results: Included in this analysis were data from 1481 children and adolescents in 300 HH (503 participants in CT, 978 in non-CT households). Overall there were 922 (62.3{%}) single orphans, 324 (21.9{%}) double orphans, and 210 (14.2{%}) participants had both parents alive and were living with them. Participants in CT-HH were less likely to have ≥2 pairs of clothes compared to non-CT HH (AOR: 0.32, 95{%} CI: 0.16-0.63). Those in CT HH were less likely to have missed any days of school in the preceding month (AOR: 0.62, 95{%} CI: 0.42-0.94) and those aged {\textless}1-18 years in CT-HH were less likely to have height stunting for their age (AOR: 0.65, 95{%} CI: 0.47-0.89). Participants aged at least 10 years in CT-HH were more likely to have a positive future outlook (AOR: 1.72, 95{%} CI: 1.12-2.65).Conclusions: Children and adolescents in households receiving the CT-OVC appear to have better nutritional status, school attendance, and optimism about the future, compared to those in households not receiving the CT, in spite of some evidence of continued material deprivation. Consideration should be given to expanding the program further.
Atwoli L, Ayuku D, Hogan J, Koech J, Vreeman RC, Ayaya S, Braitstein P. {Impact of domestic care environment on trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder among orphans in Western Kenya}. PLoS ONE. 2014;9.Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the domestic care environment on the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among orphaned and separated children in Uasin Gishu County, western Kenya. Methods: A total of 1565 (55.5{%} male) orphaned and separated adolescents aged 10-18 years (mean 13.8 years, sd 2.2), were assessed for PTSD and PTEs including bullying, physical abuse and sexual abuse. In this sample, 746 lived in extended family households, 746 in Charitable Children's Institutions (CCIs), and 73 on the street. Posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) scores and PTSD were assessed using the Child PTSD Checklist. Results: Bullying was the commonest PTE in all domestic care environments, followed by physical and sexual abuse. All PTEs were commonest among the street youth followed by CCIs. However, sexual abuse was more prevalent in households than in CCIs. Prevalence of PTSD was highest among street youth (28.8{%}), then households (15.0{%}) and CCIs (11.5{%}). PTSS scores were also highest among street youth, followed by CCIs and households. Bullying was associated with higher PTSS scores and PTSD odds than either sexual or physical abuse. Conclusion: This study demonstrated differences in distribution of trauma and PTSD among orphaned and separated children in different domestic care environments, with street youth suffering more than those in CCIs or households. Interventions are needed to address bullying and sexual abuse, especially in extended family households. Street youth, a heretofore neglected population, are urgently in need of dedicated mental health services and support. © 2014 Atwoli et al.