Antiretroviral drug adherence by HIV infected children attending Kericho District Hospital, Kenya. East African journal of public health. 2012;9:101–104..
Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis in Nandi District, Kenya by use of serum agglutination test, Kenya by use of serum agglutination test. Kenya journal of health sciences. 2012..
The oral health knowledge and oral hygiene practices among primary school children age 5-17 years in a rural area of Uasin Gishu District, Enya. East African journal of public health. 2010;7..
Susceptibility to IVM in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep–goat flock in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology [Internet]. 2003;110:235 - 240. WebsiteAbstract.
Susceptibility to IVM (IVM) of “strain A” Haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to IVM four times over a 2-year period was compared to IVM susceptibility of “strain C” H. contortus which had no prior field exposure to IVM, by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (FEC) and the total worm counts (TWC) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose IVM (20μg/kg). In vitro susceptibility to IVM was evaluated by larval migration inhibition (LMI) after the two strains of H. contortus were exposed to different concentrations of IVM. The dose response, measured as the proportion of larvae inhibited from migrating, was used to estimate LD50. Although differences in response to IVM in the in vivo determinations were not significant, “strain A” H. contortus had a significantly higher LD50 than “strain C” in the LMI assay. Coincident with the conduct of the in vivo experiment, it was observed that “strain A” H. contortus established and survived better than “strain C” in the control lambs.
When anthelmintics do not work. The Kenya Veterinarian. 2001;(21):29-31..
Helminth control in small ruminants in Kenya, a sustainable approach - The Veterinary Profession in a changing environment. Special issue of The Kenya Veterinarian. 1999;24:51-53..
Hypobiosis of Haemonchus contortus in natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology [Internet]. 1998;77:49 - 61. WebsiteAbstract.
A total of 42 lambs, 42 kids, 21 ewes and 21 does were necropsied during an investigation of the epidemiology of Haemonchus contortus infection of sheep (Red Maasai) and goats (Small East African Goat) in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Availability and establishment of the infective stages were monitored by the necropsy of 21 tracer lambs and 21 tracer kids. Prevalence of H. contortus was over 90% in both sheep and goats and this species contributed to about 80% of the total worm burden. Only about 10% of the hypobiotic larvae were recovered from the mucosal digest whereas about 90% were recovered from the abomasal contents and washings, thereby suggesting that hypobiotic larvae may be loosely attached to the abomasal mucosa from which they may be dislodged during the processing of the abomasa for examination. Throughout the study, both adult worms and hypobiotic larvae were found in proportions that varied with seasons. Statistically, a higher proportion of hypobiotic larvae was found during the dry months than during the wet months, an indication that hypobiosis was an important feature in the survival of H. contortus during the dry months. Negligible worm burdens were acquired by the tracers during the short rains, suggesting that few H. contortus larvae survived on pasture in this season. The effectiveness of strategic control using ivermectin varied according to the timing in relation to the wet season. Treatment did not influence the seasonal pattern of hypobiosis but the treatment administered before the onset of the rains significantly reduced the numbers of both hypobiotic larvae and the adult worms. Treatment during the rains conferred a temporary relief of adult worm burden but had no impact on hypobiotic larvae.
Effects of three nematode anthelmintic treatment regimes on flock performance of sheep and goats under extensive management in semi-arid Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology [Internet]. 1997;68:323 - 336. WebsiteAbstract.
A study was undertaken in a semi-arid area of Kenya between August 1991 and June 1993 to evaluate the effects of anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin before or during the rains, on performance of mixed sheep and goat flocks, in comparison with an untreated flock. Performance parameters measured included age and weight of dams at first parturition, parturition intervals, body weights of dams and offspring, and birth weights, growth rates, and mortality rates of offspring. Among these parameters, birth weights and growth rates of offspring were found to be significantly improved by the treatment administered before the rains compared with the other two treatments. Mortality was lower in lambs and kids with high birth weights. Treatment, either before or during the rains, significantly reduced the faecal egg output and improved body weight, packed cell volume and flock fertility. Liveweight was confirmed to be a better measure of sexual maturity than age. It was further shown that lambs and kids, born of dams at their first lambing or kidding, experienced higher mortality rates than lambs and kids born of dams in their second and subsequent parturitions. Overall, treatment with ivermectin before the onset of rains was equal to or better, in terms of the performance parameters measured, than treatment during the rains, whilst treatment compared with no treatment increased performance in almost all of the parameters measured.
Epidemiology and control of haemonchosis of small ruminants in semi-arid Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Information Bulletin. 1996;17:1–334..
Epidemiology and control of haemonchosis of small ruminants in semi-arid Kenya. KARI Information Bulletin. 1996:17..
The epidemiology and control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya with emphasis on hypobiosis of Haemonchus contortus . McGill University, Montreal Canada. 1995..
An outbreak of Fasciolosis in a dairy farm in Uasin Gishu District. The Kenya Veterinarian. 1990;14:32-33..
Influence of weather on population dynamics of infective larvae of cattle nematodes in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afric. 1988;36:148-154..
prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle in Tetu Division of Nyeri District, Kenya. Bulletin of animal health and production in Africa= Bulletin de la sante et de la production animales en Afrique. 1987..
The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Central Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afric. 1987;35:294-297..
An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle with particular reference to weather factors in Kenya. Thesis University of Nairobi. 1984..