2003-2007 Doctor of Philosophy, PhD in Linguistics - University of Nairobi, Department of Linguistics & African Languages.

Thesis titled: Discourse Structure of TraderCustomer Kiswahili Interactions in Kenyan Open-Air Markets:  A case of Gikomba and Kongowea. The study investigated the discourse structure of trader-customer Kiswahili interactions in two open-air markets in Kenya, namely, Gikomba in Nairobi and Kongowea in Mombasa. The market discourse, as established, is characterized by such structural markers as turn-taking, use of affective vocabulary, honorific terms of reference, conversational openings (COs), conversational closings (CCs), speech acts and various discursive topics.  This inquiry was inspired by the problem of whether or not pragmatic meaning is necessarily limited to conversational organization and to what extent it is a product of contextual factors. In explicating the said data, this research used an eclectic theoretical orientation. Degree was conferred in December 2008.      Thesis supervisors: Prof. M. H. Abdulaziz.

                :  Prof. J. H. Habwe

1994-1996 Master of Arts, M.A.,  in Swahili Studies: University of Nairobi, Department of Linguistics & African Languages

Dissertation titled: Isimu-Matini: Muumano katika Riwaya za Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed; Thesis defended in July, 1996 and degree conferred in December 1996.                                                                                                                           Thesis Supervisors: Dr. Z.  M. Mosoti.

                 : Dr. J. N. Michira.

1989-1992 Bachelor of Education, B.Ed., in Kiswahili, Philosophy & Religious Studies: University of Nairobi, 2nd Class  Honours, Upper Division.

Dissertation titled: Dhima ya Tamathali za Usemi Katika Riwaya za Said Ahmed Mohamed Khamis na Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed. Dissertation completed in June 1992. Degree conferred in November 1993.                                                        Project Supervisors: Prof. J. H. Habwe.

                 : Dr. Z. J. Omboga